Is Skin Picking A Sign of OCD?
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When you think of obsessive-compulsive disorders, it’s likely that OCD comes to mind first. However, OCD is not the only disorder of its kind. In fact, there is a wide range of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in the DSM-V (Diagnostic Statistical Manual). These disorders are categorized together, as they often share many of the same characteristics, and often the diagnosis of one obsessive-compulsive or related disorder is an indication of another.
Several disorders in the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders category may involve skin picking tendencies, most notably excoriation and body dysmorphic disorder. As discussed above, there is a high probability for comorbidity between these disorders, and thus the likelihood of an individual being diagnosed with OCD is much higher for those already diagnosed with excoriation or body dysmorphic disorder. With this in mind, skin picking behavior can point to OCD and therefore it is important to understand these related disorders. While the skin picking behavior of individuals with one of these disorders may appear identical, we can often distinguish them by asking why the individual is engaging in such behavior.
Excoriation Disorder And OCD
Excoriation, or skin picking disorder, involves recurrent skin picking despite efforts to stop or decrease the picking behavior. Whereas skin picking may be a component of other disorders in the obsessive-compulsive and other related disorders category, it is the main criteria in excoriation. Individuals with excoriation disorder may spend hours a day engaging in skin picking behavior or thinking about or resisting the desire to pick. The ongoing picking can cause varying degrees of pain and often have serious physical implications, ranging from skin irritation to significant tissue damage, scarring or infection that could, in some instances, necessitate surgery and even be life-threatening.
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Why Do Individuals with Excoriation Disorder Pick?
The reasons why individuals with excoriation disorder engage in skin picking behaviors can vary. Often the desire to pick is preceded by feelings of anxiety or boredom. It is also common for individuals to experience growing tension related to the desire to pick, which is followed by a sense of relief and/or pleasure after picking. The individual may also have specific rituals around the skin picking behavior that could involve searching for a certain type of scab to pick or involve playing with or sometimes swallowing the scab following its removal. On the other hand, it is also possible for the picking to be more automatic and out of the individual’s awareness, meaning it occurs without the presence of preceding feelings of tension or anxiety.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Unlike excoriation disorder, individuals with body dysmorphic disorder are primarily occupied with their physical appearance and the perception of such as flawed or defective in one or more ways. Although the focus of these flaws can be on several different areas of the body, it is most commonly on either the skin, hair or nose. It is important to highlight that while others perceive the flaws as minor or may not see them at all, the individual with body dysmorphic disorder can experience a range of concerns from believing they appear unattractive to hideous or even monstrous. The preoccupation with these perceived flaws causes the individual to engage in a wide range of repetitive behaviors such as comparing oneself to others, continuously checking mirrors and excessive grooming or exercising, to name a few. It is also extremely common for these individuals to engage in compulsive skin picking.
While the preoccupation in excoriation disorder is on skin picking itself, and in body dysmorphic disorder it is on physical appearance, many of the effects experienced are the same. The physical and emotional effects, as well as the social/occupational impediments described above, for excoriation disorder exist to the same or similar extent in body dysmorphic disorder. It is also common for individuals with body dysmorphic disorder to experience a great deal of anxiety and social avoidance, as well as depressed mood and low self-esteem due to shame around physical appearance. While the full breadth of emotional and psychological effects associated with body dysmorphic disorder are great, they are beyond the scope of this article.
Why Do Individuals with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Pick?Although there are similarities in the physical effects of skin picking in both excoriation and body dysmorphic disorder, the cause is markedly different. While skin picking itself is the obsession in excoriation disorder, skin picking is an effect of the obsession in body dysmorphic disorder. The main focus here is on physical appearance, and individuals engage in skin picking in an attempt to improve or fix perceived defects.
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Getting Help for Skin Picking And OCD
The good news is that help is available. Current research suggests that exposure and response prevention therapy (ERP) can successfully treat individuals with OCD, excoriation disorder or body dysmorphic disorder. ERP is a type of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) that aims to reduce compulsive behaviors and decrease avoidance of anxiety inducing situations.
If you or someone you know is struggling with OCD, you can schedule a free call today with the NOCD clinical team to learn more about how a licensed therapist can help. At NOCD, all therapists specialize in OCD and receive ERP-specific training. ERP is most effective when the therapist conducting the treatment has experience with OCD and training in ERP.
Keara E. Valentine, Psy.D., is a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University School of Medicine in the OCD and Related Disorders Track, where she specializes in the assessment and treatment of OCD and related disorders. Dr. Valentine utilizes behavioral-based therapies including Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) with children, adolescents, and adults experiencing anxiety-related disorders.
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Licensed Therapist, MA
I started as a therapist over 14 years ago, working in different mental health environments. Many people with OCD that weren't being treated for it crossed my path and weren't getting better. I decided that I wanted to help people with OCD, so I became an OCD therapist, and eventually, a clinical supervisor. I treated people using Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) and saw people get better day in and day out. I continue to use ERP because nothing is more effective in treating OCD.
Licensed Therapist, LCMHC
When I started treating OCD, I quickly realized how much this type of work means to me because I had to learn how to be okay with discomfort and uncertainty myself. I’ve been practicing as a licensed therapist since 2016. My graduate work is in mental health counseling, and I use Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) therapy because it’s the gold standard of OCD treatment.
Licensed Therapist, MA
I have personally struggled with OCD and know what it's like to feel controlled by intrusive thoughts and compulsions, and to also overcome it using the proper therapy. I’ve been a licensed therapist since 2017. I have an M.A. in Clinical Mental Health Counseling, and practice Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) therapy. I know by experience how effective ERP is in treating OCD symptoms.